Students in American schools have constitutional rights. It is true that there are areas where their rights are not as protected as those of adults, but the courts have laid out substantial, protectable rights in many areas. Students generally have the right to a safe, free, appropriate education.
About half of the states, including California, have state laws that protect people from job discrimination based on sexual orientation and, in many cases, transgender status. But in the rest, the LGBTQI community is not protected from workplace discrimination by state law.